Diseases and Treatment

  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • Hypertensive Heart disease
  • Ischemic Heart Disease
  • Inflammatory Heart Disease
  • Heart Block
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Angina
  • Arrythmia
  • Atrial Septal Defect
  • Heart Valve Disease
  • Heart Failure

What is Coronary Artery Disease?

Coronary arteries are the major blood vessels that carry blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the heart. Coronary artery disease develops when your coronary artery gets damaged or afflicted. The building up of plaques causes the arteries to become narrow, thereby decreasing the flow of blood to the heart. Gradually, the decrease in the flow of blood may result in angina or chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. If there is a complete blockage, it may result in a heart attack.

Coronary artery disease gets developed over decades, and, therefore, can go unnoticed until the last phase of heart attack. Timely medication and preventive actions contribute a great deal. You could start by committing to a healthy lifestyle.


The most significant symptom of coronary artery disease is chest pain, or angina. It is usually mistaken for heartburn or ingestion. Angina can be characterized with pressure, ache, burning sensation, numbness, squeezing in the chest. Sometimes, it can also be experienced in the arms, left shoulder, jaw, neck or back.
Other symptoms might be –

    • Faster heartbeat.
    • Dizziness or weakness.
    • Shortness of breath.
    • Nausea.
    • Palpitations – Irregular heartbeats or skipped heartbeats.
    • Excessive sweating.

    Some of the most probable causes of coronary artery disease include –

    • High Cholesterol.
    • High blood pressure.
    • Smoking.
    • Sedentary lifestyle and obesity.
    • Diabetes or insulin resistance.
    • Age
    • The prime risk factors include:
    • Smoking
    • Obesity and overweight.
    • Fatigue and dizziness.
    • Improper diet.
    • High blood pressure.

    To prevent the occurrence of coronary artery disease, one should take care of few things:

    • Management of stress.
    • Healthy eating.
    • Proper physical workout.
    • Quitting smoking.

    What is Rheumatic Heart Disease?

    Rheumatic heart disease describes a group of short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) heart disorders that occur as a result of acute rheumatic fever. Damage of the heart valves is a common result of rheumatic fever. It is these damages that lead to the defect in the heart. Acute rheumatic fever is a condition in which the connective tissues of the body, the heart, joints, brain, and skin are swollen. It is usually seen in children who are 5 to 15 years old.

    On an average, 60% of those with rheumatic fever develop heart diseases at a later stage of life. All parts of the heart get damaged due to inflammation. The most affected is generally the mitral valve.


    The symptoms of this disease change over the course of time. This fever usually sets in about some weeks after a strep throat infection. They usually occur as a result of inflammation in the heart, central nervous system, or joints. The symptoms that you might face due to rheumatic heart disease are:

    • Chest pain.
    • Heart palpitations.
    • Shortness of breath.
    • Swollen ankles, wrists, and stomach.
    • Excessive fatigue.
    • Thumping sensation in chest.

    The prime cause of Rheumatic fever is Group A Streptococcus. This kind of fever makes the body attack its own tissues after it is infected with the strep throat bacteria. This disorder causes:

    • Strep throat.
    • Scarlet fever.
    • Body inflammation.

    The main risk factors are:

    • Family history.
    • Strep bacteria.
    • Environmental conditions such as unclean water,
    • overcrowding, and improper sanitation.

    To prevent the fever from happening, there are some things one should take care of:

    • Covering the mouth while sneezing or coughing.
    • Proper washing of hands.
    • Maintaining distance from sick people

    Hypertensive Heart Disease:

    High blood pressure can give excess burden to heart and blood vessels, which can lead to various heart disorders.

    Ischemic Heart Disease:

    In this disease, the coronary arteries can become narrow and blood supply to the heart decreases.

    Inflammatory Heart Disease:

    Inflammatory Heart Disease causes inflammation of the muscles surrounding the heart due to toxic or infectious agents, or because of unknown origin.

    Cerebrovascular diseases:

    Cerebrovascular diseases is an umbrella term used for disorders related to blood vessels which are present in the brain.

    Heart Block:

    Also known as atrioventricular block, heart block is a condition where the heart beats too slowly. It occurs within the heart’s electrical system where the signals that command the heart to contract are partly or completely blocked between the upper and lower chambers.


    The symptoms experienced due to this condition depend on the type of heart block you have. First-degree heart block may not cause any signs and symptoms. Whereas symptoms of second and third-degree heart block include:

    • Fainting
    • Chest pain
    • Shortness of breath
    • Dizziness
    • Fatigue

    Some common causes of heart block are:

    • Heart attacks
    • Complication of lyme disease
    • Infection of the heart valves
    • Sarcoidosis or hemochromatosis
    • Scarring of the heart’s electrical system

    The main risk factors related to heart block include:

    • Heart failure
    • Heart valve abnormalities
    • Some medications or exposure to toxic substances
    • Lyme disease
    • Don’t smoke
    • Eat a heart healthy diet
    • Regular exercise
    • Get regular health screening.

    heart attack arises when the circulation of blood to a section of heart muscle abruptly becomes blocked, mostly because of built-up of cholesterol, fat and other matters. The interruption in blood circulation may result in permanent damage to that section of heart muscle.

    What is Myocardial Infarction?

    Myocardial infarction is commonly called as ‘heart attack’. Like all muscles of the body, the muscles in the heart require constant supply of oxygen and nutrients for their functioning. Myocardial infarction refers to the necrosis or irreversible death of muscles in the heart, owing to ischemia or prolonged lack of oxygen supply to heart muscles. Oxygenated blood is provided to the heart by two large arteries. In a myocardial infarction, blood flow into the blood vessels of the heart would be cut off suddenly.

    This can be attributed to the sudden rupture of blood clots in coronary arteries, which have plaque depositions that are fatty and calcified.


    Symptoms of a heart attack include:

    • Sweating, nausea, vomit and dizziness
    • Extreme weakness and shortness of breath
    • Rapid or irregular heartbeats
    • Discomfort, pressure, heaviness, or pain in the chest, arm, or below the breastbone
    • Discomfort radiating to the back, jaw, throat, or arm
    • Fullness, indigestion, or choking feeling, may feel like heartburn

    Usually, during a heart attack, symptoms last for thirty minutes or longer. The symptoms are not relieved by taking rest or by having nitroglycerin under the tongue. Some people might also have a silent myocardial infarction or a heart attack without symptoms. This is more common in people with diabetes.


    Exertion, excitement, and stress may act as major causes and act as triggers for a myocardial infarction. Factors, though, are well-known, and some can be controlled. Of these, the main ones are:

    • Obesity
    • Diabetes
    • High blood pressure
    • High cholesterol

    High risk factors, though, are well-known, and some can be controlled. Of these, the main ones are:

    • Smoking
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • Family history of heart disease
    • Postmenopausal women
    • Men over age of 50

    If you have had a heart attack, recovering from it would take lifestyle and psychological adjustments which should be adopted for a long time. To keep your heart healthy, you have to:

    •  Quit smoking
    • Avoid excessive consumption of alcohol
    • Avoid consumption of oily and fatty food
    • Be active and exercise moderately, on a regular basis
    • Have a healthy and balanced diet


    It is a condition which occurs when the heart is short on oxygen-rich blood, and it results in chest pain.


    Arrhythmia is a complication with the rate of your heartbeat. It arises with the improper working of electrical impulses that correlate with your heartbeats, affecting your heart to beat too slow, too fast or irregularly. When the rate is too slow, it is called bradycardia. When the rate is too fast, it is called tachycardia. Many factors such as smoking, congenital heart defects and stress are majorly responsible for this condition. There are many effective treatments available that focus to recondition a normal heart rhythm.


    Many cases of arrhythmia cause no symptoms. But when they are present, the most common ones are:

    • Sweating
    • Fast or slow heart beat
    • Chest pain
    • Shortness of breath
    • Fluttering in your chest

    There are various causes that can lead to arrhythmia:

    • High blood pressure
    • A heart attack
    • Sleep apnea
    • Blocked arteries in your heart
    • Drinking too much caffeine or alcohol
    • Overactive and underactive thyroid gland

    The main risk factors are:

    • Heart diseases
    • Thyroid problems
    • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Diabetes
    • Caffeine or nicotine use
    • Eat fibre-rich food
    • Exercise regularly
    • Limit alcohol intake
    • Healthy lifestyle

    Atrial Septal Defect:

    The atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart. There are two types of defects associated with the atrial septal – large atrial septal defect and small atrial septal defect. The large atrial septal defect may cause a major damage to the heart and lungs, whereas small atrial septal defect may occur incidentally, and may not be harmful or cause a problem. An individual whose atrial septal defect remains undetected for some time might face a shorter span of life because of a heart failure, or blood pressure that is unreasonably high and might even affect the working of arteries in the lungs. The atrial septal defect occurs in the interatrial septum, allowing pulmonary venous return from the left atrium to pass directly to the right atrium. It is a heart defect that is present from birth.


    In some individuals, symptoms begin by the age of 30, and in some, the symptoms do not manifest at all. However, the symptoms of this disease shall vary depending upon factors such as age.

    • Breathlessness, especially when doing a physical activity.
    • Extreme exhaustion.
    • Inflammation in the abdomen or legs.
    • Infections in the lungs.
    • Stroke.
    • Unusual murmur of the heart, which can be detected through a stethoscope.
    • Skipped heartbeats.

    The cause for atrial septal defect is unknown. The defects are believed to be acquired by a fusion of some genes, and other concerns. For instance, the kind of things the mother acquires in contact with her surroundings, or the kind of diet she is taking, or the medicines she is consuming.


    The main risk factors of the disease include:

    • Diabetes.
    • Obesity.
    • Rubella infection.

    In order to prevent the occurrence of this disease, one should take care of the following:

    • Going through current health conditions and medications.
    • Reviewing family medical history.
    • Getting tested for immunity to any virus.

    What is Heart Valve Disease?

    Four valves in your heart control the direction of blood flow to and from your heart. Their function is to open and close during each heartbeat. In a condition called stenosis, a valve is unable to open correctly and in another condition called regurgitation, the valve is incapable of closing properly.
    The four valves in your heart are aortic valve, mitral valve, pulmonary valve and tricuspid valve. Any of these valves could develop an anomaly in its functioning, thereby causing a heart valve disease.


    Some common symptoms of heart valve diseases are listed below:

    • Weakness and dizziness
    • Palpitations or irregular heartbeats
    • Discomfort in chest
    • Rapid weight gain
    • Shortness of breath
    • Swelling of ankles, feet or abdomen

    Sometimes, the problem with the valves could be congenital. It could also be acquired. In some cases, the cause of heart valve disease could be unknown. In a congenital valve disease, aorta of the heart gets affected. The valves could be too small or too big, have leaflets that are malformed or have leaflets that are not attached to the annulus correctly. In bicuspid aortic valve disease, instead of three leaflets, there could be only two. In acquired valve disease, the once-normal valves develop problems. The causes could be infections, rheumatic fever or endocarditis. Endocarditis refers to the extra-growths, holes and scars in the valves of the heart. These harmful germs could enter the blood during dental procedures, surgeries, severe infections or with IV drug usage.
    A few other causes of heart valve disease are:

    • Coronary artery disease
    • Cardiomyopathy
    • Cardiac arrest
    • Syphilis
    • Hypertension
    • Aortic aneurysms
    • Diseases in connective tissues
    • Tumors
    • Excessive exposure to radiation

    You could be at a risk of heart valve disease if you have:

    • Severe infections in the blood
    • Coronary artery disease
    • Cardiomyopathy
    • Aortic aneurysm
    • Connective tissue disorders

    To prevent heart valve disease, you must keep:

    • A healthy lifestyle
    • Eat healthy non-fatty food rich in fiber
    • Decrease the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and caffeine products.
    • Exercise regularly and keep yourself fit

    What is heart failure?

    The basic function of the heart is to pump the blood which is then circulated to the entire body. Heart failure occurs when the heart fails to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.
    Today, heart failure has become a common ailment across the globe and is the root cause of many heart-related diseases.


    A heart failure patient may experience one of these or different symptoms:

    • Difficulty in breathing and shortness of breath. Initially, it will occur while the patient is exercising or doing some heavy work. At advanced stages, this occurs even while the patient is resting.
    • An interruption in sleeping because of difficulty in breathing.
    • Swelling in the ankles, feet, and legs.
    • Coughing.
    • The extra fluid in the body leads to weight gain.
    • The patient is not able to do daily activities because they feel tired most of the time.
    • Lack of appetite.
    • Vomiting and nausea.
    • Faster heartbeat.

    Mostly, heart failure occurs because of one of the following reasons:

    • Blockage of the arteries (coronary heart disease).
    • Heart attack.
    • High blood pressure.
    • Heart valve problems.
    • Diabetes.
    • Lung diseases.
    • Genetic problems in the heart muscles.
    • Heart infections.
    • Excessive intake of alcohol.

    A person is at a greater risk of heart failure if he/she is suffering from any of the following activities:

    • Reduced or low levels of haemoglobin or red blood cells.
    • Anaemia.
    • A thyroid gland that is overactive (hyperthyroidism).
    • A thyroid gland that is underactive in its functioning (hypothyroidism).
    • Constantly high fever and inconsistent heartbeat.
    • Consuming too much salt in the meals.
    • Stressing the body too much with physical exercises and work.
    • People who take a lot of emotional stress are also at a greater risk.

    Following are some measures that can help prevent heart failure:

    • Quitting smoking.
    • Reducing stress.
    • Healthier lifestyle by exercising.
    • Not allowing conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
    • Eating healthy food.


    Hypertensive Clinic:

    The Clinical and Preventive Cardiology division of the Heart Institute constitutes of our experienced and expert team of doctors who are capable of handling even the most drastic heart related emergency.. The aim of Preventive Cardiology is to identify people with high risk of developing cardiac disease. The team is also committed to a proactive approach to health to avoid illness and optimize wellness. All our services are designed in a way that we can detect in its early stage so that it does not escalate and harm the individual majorly.

    Using our various pioneering technologies like the CT, and the Da Vinci Robotic Surgery, we diagnose and treat our patients to help them get back to their normal lives as soon as possible.

    Heart failure:

    Heart failure is a debilitating syndrome with a mortality rate similar to that of some cancers. It is often misdiagnosed and under-diagnosed and many heart failure patients, who are often elderly, also suffer from other complicating co-morbidities. Heart failure clinic aims to diagnosis and treatment of heart failure for people with heart failure by trained and specialised cardiologists.

    Heart Disease Reversal Program:

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the greatest public health challenges of our time, accounting for nearly 20 million deaths every year worldwide. India, with more than 60% of all CVD patients in the world, is fast emerging as the CVD capital of the world. Heart disease reversal program is envisaged to deliver focused, individualised, evidence-based, integrated healthcare to the patients with an aim to reduce the risk of CVD complications in them. The program aims for effective and aggressive management of CV risk factors with the help of-:

      • Multi-disciplinary approach to treatment, which includes patient counseling, weight management, smoking cessation, appropriate use of anti-atherosclerotic pharmacological management, etc.
      • Newer, evidence-based risk assessment tools (such as carotid IMT, brachial FMD, etc.) for guiding patient management
      • Newer, evidence-based risk reduction therapies