Dupuytren's contracture is when the tissue under the palm and finger skin thickens. It is a hand deformity that usually develops over many years. While often painless, the thick bands of tissue make the fingers curl toward the palm, which makes it hard to hold objects. Surgery is used to release these bands to restore movement. In some cases, a skin graft is needed if a large amount of tissue must be removed.
De Quervain's tendinosis happens when tendons or the tendon sheath becomes irritated, swollen, or both. The tendons can't move smoothly because there's crowding around the base of the thumb. The symptoms include swelling and pain on the thumb and side of the wrist when the hand makes a fist. It's also often painful to make a turning and gripping movement. Enlarging the sheath with surgery relieves these symptoms because the tendons are able to move smoothly.
Joint replacement is another surgery that may be used for people with severe arthritis in the hand. The joints are often destroyed by the disease and an artificial joint made out of plastic, silicone rubber, the patient's own tendon, or metal may be used to replace the joint.
Some tendon damage injuries from trauma or infection require surgery. These surgeries may only involve surgical correction or other secondary repairs like tendon grafts.
Nerve damage may require surgery to repair as well. These procedures may be a simple repair or something more complicated like reattaching a severed nerve or using a nerve graft to repair a damaged section.