Bone marrow transplantation (BMT)
Bone marrow transplantation (BMT), also known as stem cell transplantation, is a medical procedure that replaces damaged or destroyed bone tissue with healthy bone marrow cells. The procedure is used to treat cancer such as leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma, as well as other blood disorders.
Types of BMT:
Autologous BMT: This involves collecting and freezing the patient’s own healthy stem cells prior to chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The stem cells are reinjected into the patient’s body to replace damaged or destroyed bone tissue after cancer treatment.
Allogeneic BMT: This uses stem cells from a donor, such as a sibling or an unrelated donor, who are closely compatible with the patient’s tissues. The donor stem cells are injected into the patient’s body to replace damaged or lost cartilage.
Umbilical cord blood transplantation: This is also similar to allogeneic transplant, but in this case, these cells or bone marrow are collected from a newborn baby in this procedure, cells are harvested from the umbilical cord at birth right behind the scenes. The cells are then frozen and stored until they need to be replaced.
Following chemotherapy or radiation therapy, these cells are delivered via the central nervous system into the patient’s bloodstream. The process is very similar to a blood transfusion, the infused red blood cells leave the blood and enter the bone marrow. Surgery may not be mandatory in this operation.
The BMT technique involves the use of aggressive chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill cancer cells and suppress the immune system, making it possible as a stem cell transplant injected into the body to grow and make new blood cells.
BMT can have serious risks and side effects, including infection, graft-versus-host disease (in which the donor’s immune system attacks the patient’s healthy tissue); , stem cell graft rejection. and recovery time depend on the transplant type and overall health of the patient among other factors. Your healthcare team will work with you to manage any side effects and monitor your progress during and after treatment.